EDWARD III (1327 - 1377)
Born in 1312 at Windsor Castle, Edward became king when his father was forced to abdicate in January 1327. He was crowned on 1 February 1327 and married Philippa of Hainault on 24 January 1328. Tensions arose between Edward and his guardian, Roger Mortimer, who was executed on 19 October 1330.
Edward’s reign was marked by wars with Scotland and France and by outbreaks of the Black Death. The first arrived in Weymouth in June 1348 and spread to cover the entire country by summer 1349. It is estimated that around half the population died. The infection died down in December but returned in 1361-62. This time, around one fifth of the population died.
William de la Pole
William and his brother Richard were originally merchants at Ravenser (a major port since destroyed by coastal erosion). They moved to Hull and were notable merchants by the end of the 1310’s. In the 1320’s William was exporting large quantities of wool and began providing finance to Edward II. The funding continued into the reign of Edward III and the brothers obtained several rewards from the crown. They obtained the manor of Myton in 1330 and William became the first mayor of Hull in 1332. He acquired ships and supplies for the king’s wars with Scots and dispute with France. William jointly managed The English Wool Company, set up by the King as a fund raising enterprise. However, wool smuggling caused the collapse of the scheme and in 1338/39 the King was forced to borrow £100,000 from William, who also bought Burstwick (and the Seigniory of Holderness) for £22,650. In 1339 he was made Baron of the Exchequer. In 1340 William and his partner were arrested regarding the failure of The English Wool Company and William was imprisoned at Devizes Castle. The charges were annulled in 1344 and William returned to financing the King’s wars. However, the King renewed his charges in the 1350’s, forcing William to obtain a pardon in 1354 by renouncing his Seigniory, and cancel all the King’s debts to him.
In 1350 William founded the Maison Dieu (hospital) in Hull followed by the Charterhouse monastery. He died in 1366 having developed from humble beginnings to become one of the foremost figures in the country.
Isabella of England
Edward bestowed the Seigniory of Holderness (along with many other gifts) upon his eldest daughter Isabella and her husband Ingelram de Coucy, a French nobleman “for the term of their lives”. Coucy managed to maintain allegiance to both his father in law and the King of France, acting at times as a diplomat and mediator.
RICHARD II ( 1377 - 1399)
Edward III outlived his eldest son, Edward the “Black Prince” and so it was the latter’s son, Richard who was crowned King Richard II in 1377 at the age of 14. Ingelram de Coucy resigned all his English honours when Richard was crowned. Isabella died in 1379.
HENRY IV (1399 - 1413)
HENRY V (1413 - 1422)
HENRY VI (1422 - 1461)
EDWARD IV (1461 - 1483)
EDWARD V (9 Apr - 25 June 1483)
The Plantagenets (3)